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Using any type of signing key storage

Server-held signing key

Hardware Security Modules (HSMs) based on PKCS#11 interface.
Encrypted keys held in SigningHub database

Client-held signing key

Smartcards, USB tokens & eIDAS compliant Qualified Signature Creation Devices (QSCDs) accessible through a PKCS#11 interface
Hardware or software keys accessible through the Windows CAPI/CNG keystore
Hardware or software keys accessible through the Apple KeyChain

Mobile-held signing key

Signing key held in a mobile’s Secure Element hardware chip
Signing key held in SIM or MicroSD Card accessible through the iMSSP protocol
Signing key held in secure hardware (smartcard/USB token) and accessible through PKCS#11 interface